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Interactomes for ASD candidate genes within the PIN module contain the following six types of direct protein interactions:

protein binding

Two proteins bind together; includes homodimerization

promoter binding

One protein binds to the promoter of another gene; can be either direction

RNA Binding

One protein binds to the mRNA encoded by another gene; can be either direction

Protein Modification

One protein promotes a post-translational modification of another protein (examples: phosphorylation, glycosylation, nitrosylation, oxidation, hydroxylation, ubiquitination, etc.); can be either direction

Direct Regulation

One protein directly affects the activity of another protein (examples: GTP hydrolysis, RNA splicing); can be either direction


A protein regulates its own activity; typically by autophosphorylation

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